Global review about status of plastic presence in marine biota

, Rivas Marga L., López-Martinez Sergio.

The presence of plastic in the environment is generating impacts on all habitats and has become a major global problem in marine megafauna by macroplastics, through entanglement, ingestion and loss of suitable habitats. In addition to entanglement problems, there is evidence that plastics are entering the food web through their intake by marine organisms, which could ultimately be affecting humans. Much of the available information on the impact of plastic in biota is scattered and disconnected, as different methodologies are used. Here, we review the different approaches and protocols followed to assess macro and micro plastic ingestion in marine vertebrates such as sea turtles, cetaceans and fish in order to offer 28 a global overview of their current status. The analyses of 112 studies indicate the highest plastic ingestion in organisms collected in the Mediterranean and Northeast Indian Ocean, and significant differences among the prevalent polymers, colours an dplastic-types ingested by different species. In sea turtles, it was predominant white plastics (66.6 %), fibers (54.54 %) and LDPE polymer (39.09 %); in cetaceans, white macro and micro plastics (38.31%), fibers (79.95%) and PA polymer (49.6%); and in fish, transparent plastics (45.97%), fibers 66.71% and polyester polymer (36.2%).

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