The physical oceanography of the transport of floating marine debris

, Van Sebille Erik, Aliani Stefano, Law Kara, Maximenko Nikolai, Alsina Jose M, Bagaev Victor, Bergmann Melanie, Chapron Bertrand, Chubarenko Irina, Cózar Andrés, Delandmeter Philippe, Egger Matthias, Fox-Kemper Baylor, Garaba Shungudzemwoyo, Goddijn-Murphy Lonneke, Hardesty Britta, Hoffman Matthew, Isobe Atsuhiko, Jongedijk Cleo, Kaandorp Mikael, Khatmullina Lilia, Koelmans Albert, Kukulka Tobias, Laufkötter Charlotte, Lebreton Laurent, Lobelle Delphine, Maes Christophe, Martinez-Vicente Victor, Morales Maqueda Miguel Angel, Poulain-Zarcos Marie, Rodriguez Ernesto, Ryan Peter, Shanks Alan, Shim Won Joon, Suaria Giuseppe, Thiel Martin, Van Den Bremer Ton, Wichmann David.

Marine plastic debris floating on the ocean surface is a major environmental problem. However, its distribution in the ocean is poorly mapped, and most of the plastic waste estimated to have entered the ocean from land is unaccounted for. Better understanding of how plastic debris is transported from coastal and marine sources is crucial to quantify and close the global inventory of marine plastics, which in turn represents critical information for mitigation or policy strategies. At the same time, plastic is a unique tracer that provides an opportunity to learn more about the physics and dynamics of our ocean across multiple scales, from the Ekman convergence in basin-scale gyres to individual waves in the surfzone. In this review presentation, we comprehensively discuss what is known about the different processes that govern the transport of floating marine plastic debris in both the open ocean and the coastal zones, based on the published literature and referring to insights from neighbouring fields such as oil spill dispersion, marine safety recovery, plankton connectivity, and others. We discuss how measurements of marine plastics (both in situ and in the laboratory), remote sensing, and numerical simulations can elucidate these processes and their interactions across spatio-temporal scales. We provide ideas on how to further our understanding of the transport of plastic litter across various scales.

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